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Pilipino-English / English-Pilipino Terms




This list is limited to terms/words commonly used in the mountaineering community in the Philippines, in general, and in SikapBundok communications, in particular. It is not meant to be all encompassing. A few of the Filipino equivalents are SB adopted terms only.

Filipino, as used here, refers to the Tagalog-based national language of the Philippines.

Pronunciation guides have not been included (maybe in a future edition). Suffice it to say, for now, that Philippine words generally have stress indicators which show where stress is and how the word is pronounced. Unfortunately, unlike in French, Spanish and other languages, it is not common to see the stress marks in written works, even in official communications. For the non-native speakers, if in doubt as to pronunciation, ask a native speaker. In any case, even if mispronounced, the native speaker would likely understand based on the context. We are used to these situations.

TRIVIA: Tagalog, probably derived from.Taga-ilog. or .resident/people of the river,. is one of the more than 80 recognized languages (not dialects) in the Philippines. Like most Philippine languages, it is mainly of Malayo-Polynesian origin with sprinkling of Arabic, Chinese and Indian words. The lingua-franca has many words of Spanish origin, owing to the more than 400 years of colonization by Spain. The modern Tagalog, particularly in the urban areas, has also integrated many words from American English.

Tagalog is the first language in central and southern Luzon, the main island of the country. That it became the basis of the national language .Filipino. probably has to do more with history than with anything else. The colonizers established their seat of government in Manila, rather than in Cebu or in Vigan. Otherwise, the basis of the national language would have been either Cebuano (Sugbuanon) or Ilokano. In any case, Filipino as a language is still evolving. A decade or so from now, it would probably be a truly distinct language from Tagalog.

Action Kilos
Activity Kilusin
Ascent/Ascend  Akyat/Umakyat
Assembly Kapulongan/ Kapulungan
Association Samahan
Base Puno
Basic/Bases/basis Batayan
Bay Look (pronounced as two syllables .lo . ok.)
Beach See Seashore
Begin Simula. umpisa (from Spanish .Empezar.)
Bridge Tulay
Camp Kampo (from Spanish .Campo.)
Cascade Balisbis
Cave Yungib, Kuweba (from Spanish .Cueva.)
City Lungsod, Siyudad (from Spanish .Ciudad.)
Clearing Palanas
Cliff Bangin
Climb See Ascend
Cloud Ulap
Community Pamayanan
Creek Sapa
Day Araw
Descend/Descent Baba, Bumaba
End Tapos, Katapusan, Dulo
Environment Kapaligiran
Field Bukid
Flow Daloy
Foot Paa, Paanan
Forest Gubat/ Kagubatan
Hill Burol
Hole  Butas
Incline Dahilig, Dalisdis
Jump Talon
Lake Lawa
Light Ilaw, Liwanag
Level Patag, Pantay
Lightning Kidlat
Meadows Parang
Meeting Pulong, Miting (from the English)
Middle Gitna
Month Buwan
Moon Buwan
Morning Umaga
Mountain Bundok, Kabundukan
Movement Kilusan
Municipality Bayan, Munisipyo (from Spanish .Municipio.)
Night Gabi
Ocean Dagat
Peak Tuktok, ituktok
Place Pook (pronounced as two syllables .po . ok.)
Plains Kapatagan
Rain Ulan
Range, mountain Bulubundukin
Ravine Bangin
Ridge Taytay, Tagaytay
Road Daan (pronounced as two syllables .da . an.)
Run Takbo
River Ilog
Sea Dagat, laot
Seashore Baybay/Baybayin, Aplaya (from Spanish .La playa.)
Shower Ambon
Spring Bukal
Start Simula, Pasimula
Street See Road
Storm Bagyo (common), Unos (less common use)
Stream Batis
Tent Tolda (from Spanish)
Trail See Road
Typhoon Bagyo (commonly used), Unos (less common)
Thunder Kulog
Torch Sulo
Town Bayan
Tree Puno
Trek Tahak
Tunnel Lungga
Valley Lambak
Walk Lakad
Waves Alon, Lunday
Website Sapot (Adopted by SB from Tagalog term for .web.)
Waterfall/falls Talon
Waterway Ilat
Woods Kakahuyan/Kakahoyan
Year Taon


Akyat Ascent, Climb/ To climb/ To ascend
Alon Waves
Ambon Rain shower
Aplaya Beach, Seashore
Araw Day, Day-time, also Sun
Baba Descent/ To descend
Bagyo Storm, Typhoon
Balisbis Cascade (cascading water)
Bangin Cliff, Ravine
Baybay Beach, Seashore
Batis Stream
Bayan Town, Municipality
Bukal Spring (referring to water)
Bukid Field (as in .rice field.)
Bulubundukin Mountain range
Bundok Mountain
Burol Hill
Butas Hole
Buwan Month, also Moon
Daan Road, Street, Trail
Dagat Ocean, sea
Daloy Flow
Dulo End
Gabi Night, night-time
Gitna Middle
Gubat Forest
Ilat Waterway (usually, wet weather waterway)
Ilog River
Ilaw Light
Ituktok Peak
Kabundokan/Kabundukan Mountains
Kakahoyan Woods
Kampo Camp
Kapaligiran Environment, Surroundings
Kapatagan Plains
Kapulongan/Kapulungan Assembly
Kidlat Lightning
Kilos Action
Kilusan Movement
Kilusin Activity
Kulog Thunder
Kumon Commons (usually refers to common-use real property)
Kuweba Cave
Lakad Walk, Also used to mean ‘Destinaion.,
Lambak Valley
Lawa Lake
Laot Sea
Look Bay, Cove
Lunday Waves
Lungga Tunnel
Lungsod City
Munisipiyo Town, Municipality
Paa Foot
Paanan Foot (of the hill or mountain)
Palanas Clearing
Pamayanan Community
Pantay Level, Even
Parang Meadows
Patag Level
Pook Place
Pulong Meeting
Puno Tree, Base, Head of organization
Samahan Association
Sapa Creek
Sapot Web, Website
Simula Beginning, Start
Siyudad City
Sulo Torch
Tagaytay Ridge
Tahak Trek
Takbo Run
Talon Waterfall/falls, Jump
Taon Year
Tapos End
Taytay Ridge
Tolda Tent
Tuktok Peak
Tulay Bridge
Ulan Rain
Ulap Cloud/s
Unos Storm, typhoon
Yungib Cave